Wednesday, October 21, 2009

10 Websites to help you keep up-to-date with Scholarly Journal Contents

1. SciFeeds
Sub-titled ‘Your Life Science Magazine Rack’, which is quite a good explanation, this site lets you view the most recent contents of just over 100 life science journals. You can browse recent issues by subject (e.g. Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology, etc), see the most recently updated journal Tables of Contents (TOCs), search the content of TOCs (it’s rather slow), see the most ‘popular’ articles, and if you register, you can do more. There are links to the full text of articles – access to the full text will depend on institutional or personal subscriptions.

2. ticTOCs – Journal Tables of Contents
ticTOCs covers all subjects – over 12,500 journal TOCs are included from more than 430 publishers. You can Search for journal titles, view the latest TOC for each journal, link to the full text of around 390,000 articles (where institutional or personal subscription allows), export TOC feeds to popular feedreaders, and select and save (by ticking them) journal titles in order to view future TOCs (You need to Register (free) to ensure your ‘MyTOCs’ are permanently saved). Heriot-Watt University was one of the partners involved in developing this service, which was funded by JISC.

3. CiteULike Current Issues
CiteULike currently has details of over 13,000 journals. You can search or browse for journal titles, and then scan recent articles in these journals. If you know about RSS feeds, you can get a CiteULike feed for each journal TOC. Access to the full text will depend on institutional or personal subscriptions.

4. FeedNavigator
From the University of Helsinki, FeedNavigator downloads medical RSS feeds published by numerous websites and aggregates their content into a single feed, latest news first. This gives access to over 4,000 medical sources, including numerous many Tables of Contents, which are updated continuously. You can also get a list of journals covered. Access to the full text will depend on institutional or personal subscriptions.

Displays details of the latest articles in issues of over 570 popular science journals. You can also select from various subject areas. Access to the full text will depend on institutional or personal subscriptions. There’s also a Twitter feed of new items.

6. Zetoc RSS
Zetoc RSS enables you to set up RSS feeds for journals included in the Zetoc service. You can find over 27,000 journal TOC RSS feeds by journal name or by words or phrases in journal titles. Zetoc includes details of more journals than the other services mentioned above. Zetoc RSS is free to use for members of JISC-sponsored UK higher and further education institutions and research councils. It is also available to all of NHS England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. A number of other institutions are eligible to subscribe to Zetoc.

7. My Favorite Journals
You can select journals of interest from over 10,000 titles, and these are then added to ‘My Favorite Journals’, then you can select any of these favourites to view the latest Table of Contents. Access to the full text will depend on institutional or personal subscriptions.

8. jOPML
If you know about RSS and OPML, then you can use this site to get journal Tables of Contents RSS feeds as OPML files, and then, for example, load these into your favourite feedreader. Access to the full text will depend on institutional or personal subscriptions.

9. Ebling Library, at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, have produced a list of journal feeds by topic consisting of RSS feeds for 3000+ biomedical and health sciences. You can view the latest Table of Contents for each journal.

10. SUNCAT: Serials Union CATalogue for the UK research community includes links to TOCs, where available. The TOCs appear on the SUNCAT search result screen and at the top of the full record display.

Monday, October 12, 2009

Knowledge Managers

Librarianship as a profession is concerned with storage, organising and maintenance of books, papers and journals. But the modern librarian, instead of merely cataloguing books and journals, has become the nerve centre of intellectual development of a nation. As India moves towards becoming a knowledge-based society with a proliferation of learning and research institutes, the demand and importance of library science is growing rapidly. As a result, job opportunities are on the upswing. With the advent of information technology, the traditional concept is being revised to include new-age tools of information like CDs, Internet, e-libraries etc.“Today, a good librarian must be IT-savvy, a good manager and should be able to read the mind of every member,” says Dr VK Anand, librarian, Panjab University, Chandigarh, who is currently on a visit to Cambridge University to deliver a talk on radio-frequency identification technology (RFID), a tagging system used in modern libraries.
"Someone wanting to take up library science should have a basic knowledge of all major subjects, a methodical approach and organising ability,” says Bipin Kumar, manager, British Library, Chandigarh. “The librarian should arrange information (books, journals, CDs) in such a way that everything should be at the reader’s fingertips,” says Gurpreet Singh, chief librarian of CT Group of Institutions, Jalandhar.A librarian today needs to steer the set-up in a direction where people will want to come and spend their time at the library and leave with a feeling of wanting more. Accomplishing this requires more than a degree. “The qualification will get you through the door, but when we talk to a candidate, we look for that creative spark, lateral thinking,” says Mike Welch, director, young audiences and future leaders programme/customer experience, British Council, New Delhi. The modern library now actively caters to people and their needs — the British Council library has classified its books under two broad categories, ‘Be successful’ and ‘Be inspired’, separating material on management, medicine etc from fashion, films, art etc. This is the kind of innovative approach that a librarian is expected to come up with to draw readers in. Jobs are available in public and government libraries, universities, professional and other academic institutions, news and broadcasting agencies, private libraries and libraries meant for special categories of people. They can also work in museums, galleries, archives, information and documentation centres. Some library technicians are self-employed as researchers, consultants, cataloguers etc on a contract basis. Inputs from Sanchita Guha.
As information experts, librarians find, collect and organise information, and implement systems that make information easy to access. Librarians have a variety of roles, depending on where they work. A librarian has to ensure that a person gets the relevant information in the minimum time with the least effort. The modern librarian may also devise ways to draw more people into trying out new material, thus becoming a knowledge manager
9.30 am: Reach office
10 am: Meet library staff
11 am: Check e-mail and updates
11.30 am: Respond to any queries
1 pm: Lunch
1.30 pm: Go over list of requisitions
4.30 pm: Inspect the library
5.30 pm: Check the day’s transactions
6.30 pm: Leave work

Entry level: Rs 1 lakh-1.5 lakh per annum
Middle level: Rs 1.8 lakh-Rs 2.4 lakh per annum
Senior level: Rs 3 lakh or more per annumIn
government organisations, salary will depend on the grade and scale.
Must be a team player.
Command over infotech.
Good managerial skills.
Ability to analyse readers’ needs.
A knack for listening .
Knowledge of major topics.

How do i get there?
Graduates from any stream can take a Bachelor’s degree in library science, a one-year course. The Master’s degree course in library science is also of one year. There are also diploma and certificate courses. The courses are Bachelor of Library & Information Science (BLISc), Bachelor of Library Science (BLSc), Certificate Course in Library Science, Diploma in Archives & Documentation, Diploma in Library Science (DLSc), MPhil, Master of Library & Information Science (MLISc), Master of Library Science (MLSc) and PhD Institutes & urls.
National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resource (NISCAIR), New Delhi
Indian National Scientific Documentation Centre (INSDOC), New Delhi Jamia Milia Islamia, New Delhi
Banaras Hindu University
Aligarh Muslim University
Kurukshetra University
Panjab University
Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU)
Madurai Kamarj University
Andhra University
Pros & Cons.
Career progression largely depends on one’s performance.
Opportunity to meet people and develop contacts.
Must never lose track of current events.
The hours may be long, depending on the set-upDeveloping a user’s skillsA practitioner gives a glimpse of the changing role of a librarian.
How do you feel the profile of a librarian has changed over the years?
I do believe that the profile and role has changed dramatically, especially in the present century with application of information and communication technology (ICT). Till the last century, the role of a librarian was confined to the information needs of its users. Now it is not limited to providing information, but has been extended to developing the professional and personal skills of library users through activities like workshops, training programmes etc.
How will you define the impact on the profession after the advent of computer?Computer technology has changed the face and services of libraries across the world. In India, its impact was felt after the 1990s on a larger scale. Till the end of the 1980s, libraries were operating its services manually, which required more time and staff effort. But with the IT application, libraries are able to meet the needs of the users better.
How should an aspiring librarian present him/herself to an interviewer?
An aspiring librarian should have the spark and zeal to think from the customers’ point of view. They should have the right kind of attitude to deliver the best to make readers feel successful and inspired in all activities of their life, e.g. design workshops, quizzes, displays, activities around special days of the year etc. A library should not give a feeling of a very serious and dull place; it should be a place where one wants to spend time.
Now that you are heading a library, what kind of ideas and practices do you try to incorporate in your team?
Being a librarian, one should motivate his/her team to come up with ideas and try new things. A librarian should have regular brainstorming sessions with his team and work out new ways to attract customers and build a better collection.

R Vijay Shankar Interviewed by Sanchita Guha

Switch to English

Wednesday, August 12, 2009

Happy Librarian's Day-- Educators as Reflective Decision Makers

Librarian's are the Educators

Saturday, August 8, 2009

Friday, August 7, 2009

After boom, is Wikipedia heading for bust

A new study, conducted by researchers at the Palo Alto Research Center in California, has shown that Wikipedias ascendancy to the top of a large pool of online reference sites may be coming to an end because the community-created encyclopaedia has become less welcoming to new contributors.The research team has warned that the changes could compromise the encyclopaedias quality in the long term. Its easy to say that Wikipedia will always be here. This research shows that is not a given, New Scientist quoted Ed Chi, a senior scientist at the Palo Alto Research Center, as saying. Eight years after launching, Wikipedia contains nearly 3 million articles submitted by users themselves and edited by others in the Wikipedia community. However, when the research team analysed a downloaded version of the encyclopaedia they found its growth has peaked. The researchers found that the number of articles added per month flattened out at 60,000 in 2006 and has since declined by around a third. They also found that the number of edits made every month and the number of active editors both stopped growing the following year, flattening out at around 5.5 million and 750,000 respectively. The data suggests the Wikipedia community is becoming resistant to new content and new editors. Those passive editors who make just a single change per month see around a quarter of their changes erased or modified by other, more active editors (the rate was just 10% in 2003). The resulting exclusion of more varied contributions shifts the balance of power on Wikipedia to those fewer active editors, and in turn could make Wikipedia more like a fraternity than a community-driven social encyclopedia . Over time, the research team warns, the quality of Wikipedia could degrade as there would be fewer editors checking for errors and correcting the vandalism that accompanies usergen Web sites. The non-profit Wikimedia Foundation responsible for running Wikipedia has launched an internal review to make sense of the data, but says the numbers could be deceiving. For instance, the higher number of modifications to passive contributors edits could be the result of human editors removing promotional text added to articles by spam programs, an increasing problem on Wikipedia. The research team will present their analysis at the International Symposium on Wikis and Open Collaboration in Orlando , Florida this October.

Why it may collapse?
An analysis of a downloaded version of the encyclopaedia found its growth has peaked. The number of articles added per month flattened out at 60,000 in 2006 and has since declined by around a third Wikipedia community is becoming resistant to new content and new editors Over time the quality of Wikipedia could degrade as there would be fewer editors checking for errors and correcting the vandalism that accompanies user-gen Web sites.

Source : Times of India; August ; August 6, 2009.

Friday, July 31, 2009

25 Useful Social Networking Tools for Information Professionals

As a librarian, you want to be able to share information with patrons and students in the easiest way possible, and social networking offers a great way to do just that. With social networking tools, you can create bookmark collections, share notices, and more. I've profiled 25 of the best here. Communication Keep in touch with staff, patrons, and more with these tools.

MySpace: If you want to go where the students are, one of the best places to find them is MySpace. Other libraries have taken advantage of this site's calendar and blog features to improve their presence. With a little help from your IT department, you can also include custom catalog search tools.

Facebook: Another social media site frequented by students, Facebook is librarian friendly. You'll find a group just for librarian-centric Facebook apps, a JSTOR search, and much more.
Ning: Use this networking tool to get connected with students, library associations, and more. You can also use it to share information with many people at a time. Blog: By creating a blog, you'll be able to disemminate information to lots of people at one time. Whether you're updating students on new collections, or just conversing with library staff, blogs are a powerful tool, especially when combined with RSS.

Meebo: Network and assist students on Meebo, no matter what IM client they use. You can even embed a chat screen on any webpage using this tutorial.

LinkedIn: This social networking site for professionals is a great way to get library patrons connected with the people that can help them find information. Whether that's you, faculty, authors, historians, or other sources, they can find them in your LinkedIn network.

Twitter: Use Twitter, a microblogging application, to keep staff and patrons updated on daily activities, like frequently updated collections, or even just scheduling. DistributionThese tools make it easy to share information from anywhere.

Flickr: This image distribution tool is a great way to share new image collections. You can create image sets with metadata, as well as take advantage of the many plugins available for Flickr users. Flickr users can also help gather missing information about images.

YouTube: Spread the word about library events, share citizen journalism, and more on YouTube. You can see how other libraries are using YouTube by checking out the youtubeandlibraries wiki.

TeacherTube: TeacherTube, which is a YouTube for teachers, presents an excellent opportunity for instructor-librarian collaboration. Instructors can guide students to helpful library resources, and vice versa.

Second Life: On Second Life, you can create a virtual library with streamed media, discussions, classes, and more. For a good example of a Second Life library, visit the murdochsecondlife wiki.

Wikipedia: Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia updated by users. You can use this tool to share your knowledge by editing, or simply point library patrons in the right direction.

PBwiki: PBwiki is the world's largest provider of hosted business and educational wikis. It encourages collaboration from students, a way to showcase work, and offers a central gathering point for information. PBwiki offers controlled access, so you can give some editing privileges, while others can only read.

Footnote: On Footnote, you'll get access to original historical documents, and can update them with your own content and insights. You can even find personal anecdotes and experiences you won't find in reference books.

Community Walk: Community Walk offers a geographical way to interpret text and events. You can use it for instruction, such as showing someone where to find a book, or walk them through a historical and geographical timeline.

SlideShare: Encourage faculty, staff, and students to share their slideshow presentations for the greater community to access on SlideShare. It's a great way to disemminate information.

Digg: Digg is a great way to find useful content that you wouldn't come across in traditional ways. Find stories here, then share them with others using Digg's blog function. StumbleUpon: Another way to find great content is with StumbleUpon. You can channel surf the Internet to find useful content, research tools, and more.

Daft Doggy: If you've found a particularly good resource, you can use DaftDoggy to create a website tour with instructions, pointing out useful references and items of note. Organization Keep all of your information handy and accessible with these tools.

Nobii: This site for book lovers is a place to share reviews and recommendations. You can also take advantage of due date alerts, lending, and discussions. With this social bookmarking tool, you can create a custom directory for library patrons. Teach them to search by your tags, and it will be easy to find useful Internet research links.

Netvibes: In Netvibes' new Ginger beta, you can create a public page that can be viewed by anyone. You can use it to help guide patrons to helpful Internet sources, news feeds, and more. It can be integrated with many of the tools mentioned here, like Flickr and library blogs.

Connotea: Connotea is a great reference tool, allowing you to save and organize reference links and share them with others. They can be accessed from any computer and offer integration with lots of other tools.

LibraryThing: This social cataloging network is great for librarians, and you can catalog along with Amazon, the Library of Congress, and more than 200 other libraries around the world. You'll get recommendations and easy tagging as well. Another social cataloging site, you can put media such as books, CDs, and journals on display for easy access and tracking.With these social networking tools, it should be easier than ever to stay in touch, organized, and well-connected. You may even find that you've got more access to information than you ever did before. Of course, as an added bonus, you'll now be known as the "cool" librarian because you're on Facebook.

Monday, July 20, 2009

What is web 2.0?

Web 1.0 was the first incarnation of the world wide web, where information was fed in a one-way, asynchronous stream to internet users. Web 2.0 is all about participation, where there is a synchronous flow of information between the user and the internet.
Tools such as blogs and wikis allow users to upload and share information online. Sites such as YouTube and Flickr permit people to load and share content. Social networks including Facebook and LinkedIn encourage online interaction, and can be used as a forum from which to extract the so-called wisdom of crowds or to perform sentiment mining.
In a library setting, web 2.0 tools allow users to collaborate with one another and librarians in terms of indexing or authenticating information, use tagging to identify valuable information collections, or develop metadata describing those collections.
This will make the librarian-user relationship more dynamic, and also encourage more user-generated content to be shared and potentially reused in mash-ups under a creative commons licence.

Friday, July 17, 2009

Indian and International Library Automation Softwares

  1. Indian Library Softwares:
    Libra 2000
    Library Manager
    Rovan LMS
    SLIM (System for Library Information and Management)
    SOUL (Software for University Libraries)
    SWIRL [Software for Information Retrieval] [Cataloguing]

  1. International Library Software:-

    ADLIB Library for Windows
    Most of the library functions can be carried out using this integrated software. Web interface of catalogue is also possible. Demo is available for download.

    Alice library automation software
    Book Librarian for Windows.This software is useful for small school, club or corporate libraries. Catalogue of books and circulation services can be undertaken by using this software.

    CDS/ISIS software
    This software is use for creating records maintaining a bibligraphical list of documents. It has no facility of ciculation of documents.

Endeavor Voyager

It is based on ORACLE RDBMS. Most of the library functions including web interface of library catalogue can be undertaken.

EOS Library Systems
Available in two series viz. Q-Series for large libraries and GLASS for medium sized libraries. Both run on Windows Platform.

Keystone Library Automation System 6.1
At present only circulation, cataloguing, patron service, OPAC and scheduling and media booking modules are available.

Innovative Interfaces Millenium
Millennium is Innovative's next-generation automated library system. It is a Web-based, open-platform system that offers the best and most complete functionality of any library automation software. The Java™ interface offers staff and patrons an intuitive, easy-to-use, and platform-independent system.

Micro Librarian Systems
Available in two types viz. Eclipse and Jr. Librarian.

MINISIS is a multi-platform object-oriented relational database management tool. It has been developed, distributed, and supported since 1975 by The International Development Research Centre.

It is an ORACLE based integrated library management system. Most of the library operations can be carried by using this software.

Sagebrush Library Automation systems
Sagebrush offers three top automation systems viz. Accent, Athena and Winnebago Spectrum for integrating information management, catalog searching, and Internet access for libraries of every type and size.

SIRS Mandarin M3
The modules available with this software are OPAC, Circulation, Reports and Statistics and Cataloging.

SIRSI Integrated Library Management System
Most of the house keeping operations of library can be undertaken. Different versions are available depending upon type of library viz. Public, Special, Academic etc. Web interface is availabe with Z39.50 technology.

STAR/Libraries is a multi-purpose system for automating libraries and information centers.

Surpass Integrated Library Management System
Surpass is an automation solution for primary and secondary school districts as well as for public, college, corporate, and other specialty libraries. Trial version is available for download.

TLC Integrated Library Systems

URICA Version 7
It is possible to carry out all the functions of library in a integrated manner. Web interface of library catalogue is also possible.

10 Ways to Improve Your Interpersonal Skills

Ways to Improve Your Interpersonal Skills

No matter how hard you work or how many brilliant ideas you may have, if you can't connect with the people who work around you, your professional life will suffer. The good news is that there are several concrete things that you can do to improve your social skills and become closer to your colleagues. All of these tools will ultimately help you succeed in today's working world. Hence, don't discount the importance of interpersonal skills in the workplace. How you are perceived by your manager and colleagues plays a large role in things as minor as your day-to-day happiness at the office and as major as the future of your career.

Try these 10 helpful tips for improving your interpersonal skills:

1. Smile. Few people want to be around someone who is always down in the dumps. Do your best to be friendly and upbeat with your colleagues. Maintain a positive, cheerful attitude about work and about life. Smile often. The positive energy you radiate will draw others to you.

2. Be appreciative. Find one positive thing about everyone you work with and let them hear it. Be generous with praise and kind words of encouragement. Say thank you when someone helps you. Make colleagues feel welcome when they call or stop by your office. If you let others know that they are appreciated, they'll want to give you their best.

3. Pay attention to others. Observe what's going on in other people's lives. Acknowledge their happy milestones, and express concern and sympathy for difficult situations such as an illness or death. Make eye contact and address people by their first names. Ask others for their opinions.

4. Practice active listening. To actively listen is to demonstrate that you intend to hear and understand another's point of view. It means restating, in your own words, what the other person has said. In this way, you know that you understood their meaning and they know that your responses are more than lip service. Everyone will appreciate knowing that you really do listen to what they have to say.

5. Bring people together. Create an environment that encourages others to work together. Treat everyone equally, and don't play favourites. Avoid talking about others behind their backs. Follow up on other people's suggestions or requests. When you make a statement or announcement, check to see that you have been understood. If folks see you as someone solid and fair, they will grow to trust you.

6. Resolve conflicts. Take a step beyond simply bringing people together, and become someone who resolves conflicts when they arise. Learn how to be an effective mediator. By taking on such a leadership role, you will garner respect and admiration from those around you.

7. Communicate clearly. Pay close attention to both what you say and how you say it. A clear and effective communicator avoids misunderstandings with co employees, colleagues, and associates. Verbal eloquence projects an image of intelligence and maturity, no matter what your age. If you tend to blurt out anything that comes to mind, people won't put much weight on your words or opinions.

8. Humour them. Don't be afraid to be funny or clever. Most people are drawn to a person that can make them laugh. Use your sense of humor as an effective tool to lower barriers and gain people's affection.

9. See it from their side. Empathy means being able to put yourself in someone else's shoes and understand how they feel. Try to view situations and responses from another person's perspective. This can be accomplished through staying in touch with your own emotions; those who are cut off from their own feelings are often unable to empathize with others.

10. Don't complain. There is nothing worse than a chronic complainer or whiner. If you simply have to vent about something, save it for your diary. If you must verbalize your grievances, vent to your personal friends and family, and keep it short. Spare those around you, or else you'll get a bad reputation.

Monday, June 1, 2009

Microsoft unveils new web search engine called “Bing”

SAN FRANCISCO: Microsoft on Thursday unveiled a new Web search engine, Bing, designed to intuitively understand what people are seeking on the Internet and challenge online king Google. The US software colossus described Bing as a "Decision Engine" and said it will be deployed worldwide at by Wednesday. Bing's launch comes in the wake of Google and Yahoo! announcing refinements to their search services and the launch of a Wolfram Alpha query engine that delivers answers instead of lists of websites. "Today, search engines do a decent job of helping people navigate the Web and find information, but they don't do a very good job of enabling people to use the information they find," said Microsoft chief executive Steve Ballmer. "When we set out to build Bing, we grounded ourselves in a deep understanding of how people really want to use the Web." Bing relies predominately on algorithms and key words to provide results for online searches but has infused some semantic technology that deduces intended meanings of phrases, according to Microsoft. "The Bing service is a first step," said Whitney Burk, director of communications for Bing. "We still have plenty of work to do and we are excited to get it out into the wild next week." Bing will replace MSN Live Search, which has languished in a distant third place behind market-leading Google and second-place Yahoo! Bing is vastly better than Microsoft's Live but doesn't outshine Google when it comes to general Internet search, according to analyst Matt Rosoff of private firm Directions On Microsoft. "They want to give you more information without having to click through to a lot of other sites," said Rosoff, who has used Bing during the past month as part of a Microsoft test program. "I like it, but I don't think it will get me to switch from Google entirely. They are not naive to the scope of the challenge. They are going to keep throwing money at it for awhile." The search engine is aimed at online shoppers and will initially focus on helping people make buying decisions, plan trips, research health matters, or find local businesses. For example, people using Bing to shop online will automatically be provided product reviews and those planning trips will get information regarding travel bargains. Bing has a "Best Match" feature that identifies and gives high priority to answers that seem to best fit queries. "Quick Tabs" that appear automatically on search results pages recommend query refinements. As examples, searches on cities could trigger tabs for information regarding weather or tourist attractions while queries on films might prompt tabs for movie sound tracks or actor biographies. Semantic technology is used for online research quests on topics along the lines of "Was Albert Einstein married?" Documents or videos can be previewed without clicking through to links. "The most popular button in search today is the 'Back' button," Burk said. " "You shouldn't need a degree in computer science to find something on the Internet . Bing is really designed to help people narrow in on things faster and make smarter decisions." Bing gives Microsoft "a leg up" on competitors but is more likely to lure users from Yahoo! because "Google is too much of a habit for everyone," Forrester analyst Shar VanBoskirk said in a blog post. "Microsoft's Bing will change the face of search," VanBoskirk wrote. "Bing focuses on delivering answers, not Web pages." In what is a growing online search trend, Bing delves into websites to summarize what they have to offer in easily scanned preview boxes. "We are trying to surface functionality right to the top so people don't have to look for it quite so hard," Burk said. Microsoft cited study results indicating that an estimated 30 percent of online searches are abandoned out of frustration and that searchers often fail to get what they seek on a first try.

Friday, May 29, 2009

A Good Library And Librarian Are Crucial For Faculty Growth

Check out this SlideShare Presentation:

Sunday, May 24, 2009

Open Source Web Content Management Technologies for Libraries

Friday, May 22, 2009

Seminar on ICT Measurement and Indicators concluded in New Delhi

The Indian Department of Information Technology (DIT), in collaboration with the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), organized a Seminar on ICT Measurement and Indicators in New Delhi (India) from 12 to 14 May 2009.The Seminar focused on issues related to measurement of ICT access, infrastructure and usage, as well as on the impact of ICT on the society in general, and on business, individuals, governance and education in particular. To take advantage of the rapidly changing information society, governments need to monitor and benchmark progress in order to design and review national policies and strategies. In order to do so, reliable data and indicators on the access and use of ICT, and their impact on development have to be defined and collected. Such data and indicators help governments design and evaluate ICT policies and strategies, compare their ICT developments with those in other countries, and adopt solutions to reduce the digital divide. Different agencies need to work together to identify priority areas, to examine ways of coordinating activities, to maximize available resources and to achieve optimum results. The Seminar was addressed to national ICT policymakers, regulatory agencies, national statistical offices, industry associations and academia. It covered issues related to: indicators for infrastructure and access, households, business, education and e-government; benchmarking the information society; measuring impact; measuring ICT and gender; security and trust in the online environment; statistics on ICT-enabled services; and capacity building for ICT measurement. During the session 'Indicators on ICT in Education' Mr S. Venkataraman, of the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS), briefly introduced concepts of information literacy indicators, media development indicators and literacy assessment, as well as the Monitoring Programme (LAMP) of UIS, which are very useful for measuring the information society. The participants of the Seminar extensively consulted the following documents and publications in order to better understand concepts and methodologies:
* Revisions and Additions to the Core List of ICT Indicators. Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development, 2009;
* Manual for Measuring ICT Access and Use by Households and Individuals, International Telecommunication Union, 2009;
* Manual for the Production of Statistics on the Information Economy, revised edition, UNCTAD, 2009;
* Measuring ICT: the Global Status of ICT Indicators, Partnership on Measuring ICT for Development, 2005;
* Measuring the Information Society: The ICT Development Index, International Telecommunication Union, 2009;
* Report of the Partnership on Measuring Information and Communication Technologies for Development: Information and Communications Technology Statistics, Economic and Social Council, 2009. The Seminar provided a platform for national experts, policymakers, practitioners and stakeholders to discuss ICT indicators and topics that are important to national policymaking. The following suggestions were made to improve the availability of ICT statistics in India:
* Harmonising and scaling up statistics available at ministries, national statistical offices and other agencies;
* Bridging the data gap between available statistics and those required by the Revised Core List of ICT Indicators;
* Adapting international statistical tools and guidelines related to gathering, analysing and presenting statistical data;
* Building the capacities at the national level in order to maintain the quality and the reliability of data.

India launches Online Petition for Patent Information

India launches online petition for patent information
T. V. Padma
[NEW DELHI] An Indian online forum dealing with intellectual property rights has launched a petition to Indian patent authorities, calling for more transparency in the country's patent system and for information to be more easily accessible.The online petition was launched this week (28 April). It follows an earlier petition submitted at the end of 2007 following which Indian patent authorities said that the complete database with searchable patent information, including patent specifications and decisions, would be available online by March 2009.But the deadline was not been met, prompting the new petition, Shamnad Basheer — a professor in intellectual property law at the National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata, who initiated the petition — told SciDev.Net.The second petition calls for more patent-related information to be made public. This includes all correspondence between a patent applicant and the patent office; clear patent titles and abstracts; patent office circulars that impact patentability; corresponding patent applications elsewhere; and amendments made by the applicant from time to time to address issues raised by opponents challenging a patent.A key piece of information being sought by the petition relates to 'working' statements — whether a firm that has been granted a patent for a drug is actually making the drug — which are supposed to be filed by the patentee with the Indian patent office. According to Indian patent laws a firm that has been granted a patent for a drug in India must also make it in India for the next three years. Otherwise the drug is eligible for compulsory licensing.This information is often withheld while filing an application, says Basheer. "Since most of the drug patents in India are by MNCs [multinational corporations] and many of these patents are not 'worked' in India (the patented drug is not manufactured in India, but only imported into India), many of these patents become susceptible to compulsory licenses," he says. The groups are also requesting that the Indian government build public-private partnerships with the ICT sector in India to build a better e-filing system and other innovative ICT tools to aid a more efficient administration of the Indian patent office.Basheer says the petition attracted 100 signatories after the first day, including patent attorneys, pharmaceutical companies, students from the Carnegie Mellon Institute and the Max Planck Institute, and global not-for-profit organisations such as the Initiative for Medicines, Access and Knowledge that promotes technical assistance on IPR issues to governments, campaigns against unsound pharmaceutical patents and promotes access to drugs.

Saturday, May 16, 2009

Fedora Commons and DSpace Foundation Join Together to Create DuraSpace Organization

Fedora Commons and the DSpace Foundation, two of the largest providers of open source software for managing and providing access to digital content, have announced today that they will join their organizations to pursue a common mission. Jointly, they will provide leadership and innovation in open source technologies for global communities who manage, preserve, and provide access to digital content.
The joined organization, named "DuraSpace," will sustain and grow its flagship repository platforms - Fedora and DSpace. DuraSpace will also expand its portfolio by offering new technologies and services that respond to the dynamic environment of the Web and to new requirements from existing and future users. DuraSpace will focus on supporting existing communities and will also engage a larger and more diverse group of stakeholders in support of its not-for-profit mission. The organization will be led by an executive team consisting of Sandy Payette (Chief Executive Officer), Michele Kimpton (Chief Business Officer), and Brad McLean (Chief Technology Officer) and will operate out of offices in Ithaca, NY and Cambridge, MA.
"This is a great development," said Clifford Lynch, Executive Director of the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI). "It will focus resources and talent in a way that should really accelerate progress in areas critical to the research, education, and cultural memory communities. The new emphasis on distributed reliable storage infrastructure services and their integration with repositories is particularly timely."

Together Fedora and DSpace make up the largest market share of open repositories worldwide, serving over 700 institutions. These include organizations committed to the use of open source software solutions for the dissemination and preservation of academic, scientific, and cultural digital content.
"The joining of DSpace and Fedora Commons is a watershed event for libraries, specifically, and higher education, more generally," said James Hilton, CIO of the University of Virginia. "Separately, these two organizations operated with similar missions and a shared commitment to developing and supporting open technologies. By bringing together the technical, financial, and community-based resources of the two organizations, their communities gain a robust organization focused on solving the many challenges involved in storing, curating, and preserving digital data and scholarship," he said.

New Products
DuraSpace will continue to support its existing software platforms, DSpace and Fedora, as well as expand its offerings to support the needs of global information communities. The first new technology to emerge will be a Web-based service named "DuraCloud." DuraCloud is a hosted service that takes advantage of the cost efficiencies of cloud storage and cloud computing, while adding value to help ensure longevity and re-use of digital content. The DuraSpace organization is developing partnerships with commercial cloud providers who offer both storage and computing capabilities.
The DuraCloud service will be run by the DuraSpace organization. Its target audiences are organizations responsible for digital preservation and groups creating shared spaces for access and re-use of digital content. DuraCloud will be accessible directly as a Web service and also via plug-ins to digital repositories including Fedora and DSpace. The software developed to support the DuraCloud service will be made available as open source. An early release of DuraCloud will be available for selected pilot partners in Fall 2009.

Key Benefits of the DuraSpace Organization
DuraSpace will support both DSpace and Fedora by working closely with both communities and when possible, develop synergistic technologies, services, and programs that increase interoperability of the two platforms. DuraSpace will also support other open source software projects including the Mulgara semantic store, a scalable RDF database.
DuraSpace is mission-focused. The organization will be associated with its broader mission of working towards developing services and solutions on behalf of diverse communities rather than focusing on single-solution product development. This change in orientation can be characterized as moving beyond the software and toward the mission.
DuraSpace will bring strength and leadership to a larger community and amplify the value brought by each organization individually. With both organizations working in unison, there can be significant economies of scale, synergies in developing open technologies and services, and a strong position for long-term sustainability.
Learn More about DuraSpace
DuraSpace will be represented at the Fourth Annual International Conference on Open Repositories ( Please check the schedule and visit the Fedora Commons and DSpace information tables at the conference to learn more. Also, initial information will be available at the DuraSpace website, with more information forthcoming in June 2009.

About Fedora Commons
Fedora Commons ( was established in 2007 as a not-for-profit organization and the home of the Fedora repository software and related open source projects. Fedora is a robust, integrated, repository system that enables storage, access and management for virtually any kind of digital content. The Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture (Fedora) was originally designed by Sandy Payette and colleagues at Cornell University and was established as an open source project in 2001 by Cornell and the University of Virginia. Fedora has a large international user community and is installed worldwide at universities, libraries, research institutions, cultural organizations, and corporations.

About DSpace Foundation
The DSpace Foundation ( was formed in 2007 to support the growing global community of institutions using DSpace open source software to manage scholarly works in a digital repository. DSpace was jointly developed in 2002 by Hewlett-Packard and the MIT Libraries. Today, there are over more than 500 organizations worldwide using the software to manage, preserve, and share their scholarly output.

Google Squared

Google Squared
May12, 2009 was the historical moment in Google history, when at searchology event, launched a new searching tool named Google Squared. This is the best effort in web 3.0 and semantic searcrh. It is the effort of structuring the unstructred data on web pages and in process they extract data from the web pages and presents the search results as squares in an online spreadsheet format.The San Francisco Chronicle described the feature in a bit more detail that it compiles details from several Web pages and organizes them into a table on a single page, with multiple columns like a spread sheet. One of the features announced today is called Search Options, which is a collection of tools designed to let users better "slice and dice" their search results so they can manipulate the information they're getting. Mayer said the tools should help people who struggle with what exactly what query they should pose."

Let's say you are looking for forum discussions about a specific product, but are most interested in ones that have taken place more recently," she wrote. "That's not an easy query to formulate, but with Search Options you can search for the product's name, apply the option to filter out anything but forum sites, and then apply an option to only see results from the past week."One Search Options tool is geared toward giving users more information when they do a search. For instance, instead of just getting results in text form, they could have the search engine return images as well.Google acknowledged that this was still very much a “labs” feature that was imperfect at best. However, between Wolfram Alpha, Google’s efforts in semantic search, and a host of competitors that will be popping up in this field, we may very well be on the edge of Search 3.0. This is good news for our students, teachers, and library scientists struggling to help our students get the information they want from the billions of pages of junk (and millions of pages of interest) floating around the web. In that same layer Google also is adding more information to its results snippets -- those little pieces of text that tell you about the site that's been pulled up. If you're searching for a hotel, for example, the snippet won't just tell you the name of the hotel and where it is -- now it could tell you its price range, number of stars in customer reviews and the number of reviews listed. Google Squared still needs a lot of improvement, which is why it's being released to Labs. It collects the information by looking for structures that seem to imply facts. The squares are built out based on high probability of facts. There will be concerns over Google providing this data on its own by grabbing data and serving it up without sending searchers to the sites that provided the info.
For more reading following links may be helpful ------
Screenshots of Google Squared
YouTube-Google Squared

Tuesday, May 12, 2009

D Space Proposal Tvm 1407

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Sunday, May 10, 2009

Web 2.0 - The Machine is Using Us

Describe all the aspects of Web 2.0

Library of the Future

Stanford University Library

Wolfram Alpha is Coming......

Wolfram Alpha- A new search engine which will left Google behind.

Mathematica has been a great success in very broadly handling all kinds of formal technical systems and knowledge.
But what about everything else? What about all other systematic knowledge? All the methods and models, and data, that exists?
Fifty years ago, when computers were young, people assumed that they’d quickly be able to handle all these kinds of things.
And that one would be able to ask a computer any factual question, and have it compute the answer.
But it didn’t work out that way. Computers have been able to do many remarkable and unexpected things. But not that.
I’d always thought, though, that eventually it should be possible. And a few years ago, I realized that I was finally in a position to try to do it.
I had two crucial ingredients: Mathematica and NKS. With Mathematica, I had a symbolic language to represent anything—as well as the algorithmic power to do any kind of computation. And with NKS, I had a paradigm for understanding how all sorts of complexity could arise from simple rules.
But what about all the actual knowledge that we as humans have accumulated?
A lot of it is now on the web—in billions of pages of text. And with search engines, we can very efficiently search for specific terms and phrases in that text.
But we can’t compute from that. And in effect, we can only answer questions that have been literally asked before. We can look things up, but we can’t figure anything new out.
So how can we deal with that? Well, some people have thought the way forward must be to somehow automatically understand the natural language that exists on the web. Perhaps getting the web semantically tagged to make that easier.
But armed with Mathematica and NKS I realized there’s another way: explicitly implement methods and models, as algorithms, and explicitly curate all data so that it is immediately computable.
It’s not easy to do this. Every different kind of method and model—and data—has its own special features and character. But with a mixture of Mathematica and NKS automation, and a lot of human experts, I’m happy to say that we’ve gotten a very long way.
But, OK. Let’s say we succeed in creating a system that knows a lot, and can figure a lot out. How can we interact with it?
The way humans normally communicate is through natural language. And when one’s dealing with the whole spectrum of knowledge, I think that’s the only realistic option for communicating with computers too.
Of course, getting computers to deal with natural language has turned out to be incredibly difficult. And for example we’re still very far away from having computers systematically understand large volumes of natural language text on the web.
But if one’s already made knowledge computable, one doesn’t need to do that kind of natural language understanding.
All one needs to be able to do is to take questions people ask in natural language, and represent them in a precise form that fits into the computations one can do.
Of course, even that has never been done in any generality. And it’s made more difficult by the fact that one doesn’t just want to handle a language like English: one also wants to be able to handle all the shorthand notations that people in every possible field use.
I wasn’t at all sure it was going to work. But I’m happy to say that with a mixture of many clever algorithms and heuristics, lots of linguistic discovery and linguistic curation, and what probably amount to some serious theoretical breakthroughs, we’re actually managing to make it work.
Pulling all of this together to create a true computational knowledge engine is a very difficult task.
It’s certainly the most complex project I’ve ever undertaken. Involving far more kinds of expertise—and more moving parts—than I’ve ever had to assemble before.
And—like Mathematica, or NKS—the project will never be finished.
But I’m happy to say that we’ve almost reached the point where we feel we can expose the first part of it.
It’s going to be a website: With one simple input field that gives access to a huge system, with trillions of pieces of curated data and millions of lines of algorithms.
We’re all working very hard right now to get WolframAlpha ready to go live.
I think it’s going to be pretty exciting. A new paradigm for using computers and the web.
That almost gets us to what people thought computers would be able to do 50 years ago!

Saturday, May 9, 2009

Libraries and Web 2.0: Help or Hype?

Terms used in LIS for Group Gathering

Terms used in LIS for Group Gathering

a. Seminar : Formal presentation by one or more experts in which the attendees are encouraged to discuss the subject matter.
Acc. to Carol Pierce
"Seminars tend to be more one-way from the presenter without opportunities for practice or application nor do they actively engage participants in the process."
Seminar being a bit more of a traditional training session, with the preponderance of time spent in presentation of material from the front of the room.
Seminars are usually 90 minutes to 3 hours.
Seminars are frequently more lecture driven with less participant interaction other than answering questions. Often the questions at a seminar are taken at the end of the presentation.
Seminars have more limited handouts, often just a printout of the PowerPoint presentation.
Seminar is going to involve more individual thinking, working, writing, processing and maybe some with one or two people sitting close by, but it won't be quite as active.
Seminar is a meeting on a specific subject, or a meeting of university or college students for study or discussion with an academic supervisor.
A seminar can also mean a specialized educational class.

b. Conference: A meeting for the exchange of views on a given topic OR a prearranged meeting for consultation or exchange of information or discussion (especially one with a formal agenda)
Conference also refers to meeting for lectures of discussion, whereas a seminar is a meeting on a specific subject, or a meeting of university or college students for study or discussion with an academic supervisor. Conference has no such specific meaning.

c. Symposium: A meeting or conference for discussion of a topic, especially one in which the participants form an audience and make presentations. Symposium originally referred to a drinking party (the Greek verb sympotein means "to drink together") but has since come to refer to any academic conference, or a style of university class characterized by an openly discursive rather than lecture and question-answer format

d.. Workshops: Refers to a seminar, discussion group, or the like, that emphasizes exchange of ideas and the demonstration and application of techniques, skills, etc. It emphasizes problem-solving, hands-on training, and requires the involvement of the participants.
An educational seminar or series of meetings emphasizing interaction and exchange of information among a usually small number of participants. a group of people are engaged in intensive study or work in a creative or practical field/aspects.
A workshop seems to imply relatively more time spent interactively, perhaps in facilitated activities, where the participants generate some form of product (e.g. goals for the coming year, a strategy for dealing with a customer, etc.) at the end of the session.
Workshops get participants fully involved in the learning process: small and large group discussions, activities & exercises, opportunities to practice applying the concepts that are presented.
Workshops are usually longer, often 1 to 2 days.
Workshops include far more interactive exercises.
Often the questions at a seminar are at the end of the presentation. At a workshop, handle the questions as they arise and often turn them into group discussions.
Workshops are usually smaller, 25 people or less. Seminars are often over 100 people.
Workshops usually have a workbook handout of 50-100 pages.
Workshop is more "hands-on" for the participants. They are going to be working, thinking, doing, processing, creating (maybe physically), up and at 'em moving around, lots of interaction, etc.
A workshop is quite different. It means a place where manual work is done, especially manufacturing or repairing. It also means a group working together, on a creative project, discussing a topic, or studying a subject.
A workshop is a period of time (probably 3 -6 hours up to 4 days) when the presenter provides "activity learning" opportunities balanced with time for reflection and for collaboration with peers. This is a time and place for teachers to experience for themselves (in the role of student), the learning activities that they will be utilizing to help their own students learn and grow. Two to four day workshops often have the option to be taken for college credit.

e. Training: Refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relates to specific useful skills.

f. Congress: A congress is very similar to a conference, however it implies a degree of formality. A congress is a formal meeting of delegates or representatives, e.g. the representatives of a group of nations, to discuss matters of interest or concern. It was also a formal way of saying "sexual intercourse", but that particular usage is rare these days.

Sunday, May 3, 2009

Libramation announces the 24/7 Library!

Libramation announces the 24/7 Library!
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada – May 2009 – Libramation, a leader in providing library
automation equipment technology and RFID to libraries, announced today the latest in
library robotic self-check technology.
  1. Want your patrons to be able to borrow library materials 24/7?
  2. The ability to do this without extending library hours or hiring extra staff?

The Libramation LibraMate, developed by NBD/Biblion is the answer! Allow patrons 24 hours access with a machine that looks and feels much like an ATM. Using a simple touch screen, patrons can browse through a list of the items available and make their selection. The library can configure the system to determine how many items a patron can borrow. The patron simply scans their patron card, standard barcode or RFID, then, the item, in a protective case, is ejected extremely fast from the machine.

LibraMate also acts as a return station; returned items are cleared with the ILS and are immediately available for the next patron. In order to make optimal use of the system, the cases come in two sizes to accommodate various materials. The cases are bigger then current products on the market, allowing approximately 95% of your collection to be circulated via the LibraMate.
In a response to a society that demands service 24 hours a day, LibraMate is a proven solution in the Netherlands. The equipment is state of the art, but easy to operate for both library staff and patrons. The LibraMate, which uses RFID technology, is especially suitable for small or new communities where library facilities are not yet feasible or are only available by bookmobile. LibraMate can be used to extend library services to shopping centers, schools, bus or subway/train stations and community centers, since the back-end can be customized to fit anywhere from 600 to 1000 items.

Technical data
Dimensions (LxWxH)* 395 x 126 x 238 cm or 155" x 50" x 94"
Capacity* 600 items, Sound production negligible, Supply 380 volt, 16 amp.
* The dimensions and capacity of the LibraMate can be customized to your Library requirements.
About Libramation, a partner of the Lib~Chip Group of Companies
Libramation, celebrating their 10th anniversary, is committed to providing quality solutions for today’s library. Libramation specializes in library automation technology equipment and software. With the development of our RFID system starting in 2001, the Lib~Chip Group of Companies now have more than 125 Lib~Chip RFID installations.
Our self-check products are installed in more than 450 libraries. Libraries can choose from numerous hardware and software options, custom animations to interact with patrons and a variety of languages. Libramation understands that each customer has unique requirements. Coupled with our expertise and knowledge, we utilize technologies specifically designed to automate library workflow processes. Libramation consults with the library and makes recommendations that help the library address their distinct needs.

Libramation products include patron self-check stations, ergonomic circulation desks, automated materials-handling systems, CD/DVD 24-hour self-charge and return "Media Bank" kiosks, RFID technology and the new LibraMate.

Copyright (c) 2009 Libramation
Summary:Libramation, announced the latest in library robotic self-check technology. The Libramation LibraMate, allows patrons 24 hours access with a machine that looks and feels much like an ATM. Using a simple touch screen, patrons can browse through a list of the items available and make their selection. The library can configure the system to determine how many items a patron can borrow. The patron simply scans their patron card, standard barcode or RFID, then, the item, in a protective case, is ejected extremely fast from the machine.

Friday, March 27, 2009

Semantic Web: Explanation

This is the best and simplest explanation I found on Semantic Web, have a look....

Saturday, February 14, 2009


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Sunday, January 18, 2009

Library Resources Optimization

Library Resources Optimization- By Anil Mishra

The main objective of every library is to make effective use of the resources available to it but most of the resources are weeded out without a single usage. I have given a 3 phrase model for selecting, deploying and monitoring of the resources, so that they can reach to their user and can be optimized by accomplishing the 2 and 3 law of LIS – Every user his or her document and Every document its user.

Library resources optimization is the art of providing effective services and resources to users. One of the key issue with this article is that the LIS field is changing rapidly and thus an advice or suggestion can become superannuated before the ink is dry. The most successful techniques evolve over time and the tools available to the LIS professionals are improved deleted, or replaced by others. Nearly 60% of the resources in a library are never used; just think about this for a moment. So, LRO essentially involves making it easy for our Library resources to find their users.
There are essentially 3 phrases to improve our library resources:
ü Planning and Preparation (which includes user identification and resource allocation),
ü The LRO Campaign
ü Ongoing Monitoring of the resources.

The Chinese general Sun Tzu said, “Opportunity of defeating the enemy is provided by the enemy himself”. He also advised generals to “pick the right battlefield”. So it is with LRO that you need to pick the right materials for your library. It should be according to the core areas of your parent organization. You need to find the interest of your users, means you need to satisfy the need of your users by knowing about their field and area of interest. For instance if you choose the wrong materials for your library, you are likely to expend a good deal of precious time, energy and money on activities that will bring scant return. Before we go into the method in detail, I’d like to give you a brief overview of each of the steps so that you can orient yourself.

Phase I -:
Planning and development – It includes
1. Proposition Development
2. Resource Discovery
3. Resource Attractiveness
4. Resource Deployment

Phase II-:
The Library Resource Optimization Campaign – It includes
Ø Creating Awareness
Ø Resource Display and Exhibition
Ø User Orientation
Ø Reference Service

Phase III-:
Ongoing Monitoring of Resources – It includes
Ø Patron Feedback
Ø User Statistics

Phase I-
Library is a store house of resources. Documents and materials are its constituents. Discovering resource is all about finding good stuff for your patron, then deploying them for best effect.
Proposition Development:-
It is about working out who your customers or users are; what you can provide them to visit your library again and again; how they will find your resources; and what will convince them to use your resources.
a) Resource Discovery:-
It is first of 3 steps in my D-A-D resource analysis technique. In discovery, you have to find out the keywords from the core areas of your parent organization and then select documents based on those keywords.
b) Resource Attractiveness:-
It is the second D-A-D step and involves balancing resource popularity and resource competitiveness to determine the overall opportunity, or attractiveness attached to each resource. You have to procure almost all the latest and popular documents related to your core areas, so that they can attract your patron towards your library.
c) Resource Deployment:-
The ability of the patrons, to make effective use of library resources is the one of the main objectives of every library. So, the users should be aware of the position of each and every type of resources deployed in the library.The positioning of each and every type of resources should be certain. For this a good Classification scheme should be adopted and proper tagging of the resources or devices should be done; then only the user can make effective use of library resources available to him.

Phase II:-
The LRO Campaign:-

User Orientation:-
There are various techniques for providing user education programs like lectures, guided tours etc. Orientation programs can include imparting education or instruction to the users in –
a) Introduction to library
b) Introduction to library techniques
c) Introduction to information sources and services.
d) Literature search techniques

a) Introduction to the library
i) About the Library: a brief introduction about the library.
ii) Library timings: opening and closing hours on week days and holidays, closed days, timing for issue and return of books.
iii) Layout of library building, floors, areas, collection, etc. location of varioussections, services.
iv) Library rules: number of books to be issued according to category of borrowers; types of books, loan period for reference books, periodicals, general books and other categories of books, overdue charges, reservation of books.
v) Staff: Introduction to the in-charge of each section.
vi) Procedures: Membership and registration, borrowing procedures.
vii) Others: some special features related to the library can be included.
b) Introduction to library techniquei) Scheme of classification: its features, class numbers representing broad subjects, arrangement of subjects.
ii) Catalogue: inner form, author, title, subject, etc. catalogue, how to use catalogue, how to find book with the use of catalogue.
iii) Facilities, security, etc.

c) Introduction to information sources and services
i) Types of reference books and information contained in these, e.g. directories, encyclopedias, bibliographical directories, gazetteers, subject encyclopedias, subject bibliographies, abstracts, indexes, serial publication, demographic sources, year books, patents, standards, primary and secondary information sources, use of non-traditional sources.

ii) Types of services provided by the library to its users, like reference service, circulation service, CAS, etc; should be mentioned.

d) Literature search techniques
i) Use of indexing and abstracting periodicals, thesaurus, citation indexes, style manuals, how to use citation, prepare bibliographies etc.

Resource Display and Exhibition:- Good and newly arrived documents are put on the display shelf of the library at the entrance gate, so that users can know about the latest addition in the library.A library should also organize exhibition of its resources for creating awareness among the masses.

a) Libray Recommends:-In this section, the documents dealing with the core areas of the parent organization should display. It will reflect the ongoing research in the organization
b) New Arrivals:-
This section contains the latest additions in the library.
c) Faculty or Staff Publication:-
In this section, the documents published by the inhouse faculty or staff of the organization should reveal, Reference Service:-While attending reference queries for the users from the databases or Journals, it is quiet appreciating to provide list of documents available at the library on the particular topic.

Phase III:-
Ongoing Monitoring of Resources:-
Patron Feedback:-
It is necessary to take annual feedback from the patron about the services and resources of the library. It reveals the quality of resources and services which the library is providing to its patron throughout the year and it also provide the solution to any discrepancy.

User Statistics:-It is good to judge the area of interest of the users. It will help in building the resources of the library, it provide a great help for the procurement of materials for the coming years.

A patron can be grouped into 4 areas of using library.
Suspects:- they are those who may have a (passive) need for your resources and services.
Prospect:- a suspect become a prospect once they have expressed an active interest in your resources or services.
Lead:- a lead is a prospect who meets the criteria of someone who is “ready to use”.
User:- the lead becomes a customer or user when he take documents from you.

Conclusion:- To derive more effective and efficient use of resources across the library, the Resource Optimization model should be based on the objective, decision variables and constraints. Changing conditions will warrant corresponding changes in your resource optimization models. Periodically cycling through this 3 Phase Model will help libraries to improve their resources as they update their models to generate insights that continue to be relevant and valuable. A commitment to resource optimization will help to ensure that your library remains focused and productive in an ever-changing competitive environment.

Author- Anil Kumar Mishra

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